Introduction to public health pdf download

introduction to public health pdf download

  • Introduction To Public Health | Pdf Books Download | Read Online Full
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  • Introduction to Public Health
  • Introduction to Public Health 5th Edition
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  • But what do we mean when we speak about 'public health'? In this Very Short Introduction Virginia Berridge explores the areas which fall ingroduction the remit of public health, and explains how the individual histories of different countries have come to cause great differences in the perception of the role and responsibilities of public health organisations. Thus, in the United States litigation downloqd public health issues is common, but state involvement is less, while some Scandinavian countries have a tradition of state involvement or even state ownership of industries such as alcohol in connection with public health.

    Introduction To Public Health | Pdf Books Download | Read Online Full

    In its narrowest sense, public health can refer to the health of a population, the longevity healyh individual members, and their freedom from disease, but it can also be anticipatory, geared to the prevention of illness, rather than simply the provision of care and treatment. In the way public health deals with healthy as well as sick people it is therefore a separate concept from health services, which deal with the sick population. Drawing on a wide range of international examples, Berridge demonstrates the central role of history to understanding the amorphous nature of public health today.

    These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. How can society most effectively prevent disease and promote health?

    [Download] PDF Introduction to Public Health

    That is the challenge addressed by this textbook. Public health is the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts of society. The 'science' is concerned with making a diagnosis of a population's health problems, establishing their cause and determining effective interventions.

    The 'art' lies in creatively addressing these problems. Essential Public Health captures both the art and science of the field. This second edition has been fully updated with contemporary examples and includes new chapters on sustainability and change, management and leadership. Examples are taken from health systems throughout the world, giving readers a wider perspective of the challenges faced.

    This is essential reading for pdf trainees in health care, social care and related disciplines. An internet companion includes supplementary information and interactive, self-assessment questions to test understanding and aid learning. Pharmacists are on the frontlines of public health. Their public-facing introduction uniquely position them to identify and address emerging disease challenges, discrepancies in health literacy, and barriers to treatment in the communities they serve.

    In today's interconnected world, the clients consulting a neighborhood pharmacist are just as likely to hail from across an ocean as they are from around the corner. Macro-level examinations of health care systems and funding mechanisms around the world and advice for culturally competent, client-centered communication regarding nutrition and proper self-administration of medications encapsulate pharmacists' dual roles as guardians of global public health and providers of personalized care.

    Written in accordance with the latest guidelines from the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education, Introduction to Public Health in Pharmacy, Second Edition offers an accessible introduction for pharmacy students and a comprehensive refresher for pharmacists already in public. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to public health from a pharmacy perspective. Organized into three main sections, Part I presents concepts and issues that pharmacists need in order to develop a knowledge base in public health.

    Part II examines the connection between pharmacy and public health services, including an overview of the different health services, evaluation and outcome assessment, financing, managed care pharmacy, and pharmacoeconomics. Part III presents chapters that health key applications of public health concepts to pharmacy practice, including law and ethics, cultural perspectives, informatics, emergency preparedness, and education and training.

    Each chapter is co-authored by a public health expert as well as a pharmacist. Chapter features include case studies, learning objectives, chapter questions, questions for further discussion, and key terms. The New Public Health has established itself as a solid textbook throughout the world. Translated into 7 languages, this work distinguishes itself from other public health textbooks, which are either highly locally oriented or, if international, lack the specificity of local issues relevant to students' understanding of applied public health in their own setting.

    This 3e provides a unified approach to public health appropriate for all masters' level students and practitioners—specifically for courses in MPH programs, community health and preventive medicine programs, community health education programs, and community health nursing programs, as well as programs for other medical professionals such as pharmacy, physiotherapy, and other public health courses. Changes in infectious and chronic disease epidemiology including pdf, health promotion, human resources for health and health technology Lessons from H1N1, pandemic threats, disease eradication, nutritional health Trends of health systems and reforms and consequences of current economic crisis for health Public health law, ethics, scientific d health technology advances and assessment Global Health environment, Millennium Development Goals and international NGOs.

    The goal of the forum is to provide structured opportunities for representatives from academia, industry, professional download interest groups, and government to examine and discuss scientific and policy issues that relate to research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging infectious diseases. A critical part of this mission has been the convening of a series of workshops. Public Health Systems and Emerging Infections summarizes the fourth in a series of five workshops.

    With a focus on our knowledge and understanding of the role of private and public health sectors in emerging infectious disease surveillance and response, the participants explored the effects of privatization of public health laboratories and the modernization of public health care. The issues discussed included epidemiological investigation, surveillance, communication, coordination, resource allocations, and economic support.

    Introduction to Public Health. Author : James A. Graham, PhD,Raymond L. Prevention Effectiveness. Author : Anne C. Haddix,Steven M. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Nov 28. I like the ways in which epidemiology and the biomedical section of public health was explained, in a way which does not rely on statistics and not an overdose of epidemiological principles and what not. I love this textbook because it is arranged in a way with introduction summarizing the past chapter pretty closely to the sections detailed more in depth download the chapter.

    This a great textbook for students embarking on a public health course, public is the best introduction, hopefully one to spur or ignite passion in the field. I also like the fact that this textbook is current, in other fields older textbooks are used with less accurate data and or statistics, however in the field of public health this is not the case since the author used several recent as well as past public health events and associated information.

    Could they be produced by bias on the part of the interviewers in taking and interpreting the histories? To summarize, it is not reasonable, in our view, to attribute the results to any special selection of cases or to bias in recording. In other words, it must be concluded that there is a real association between carcinoma of the lung and smoking. Many subsequent studies have confirmed this. Molecular and genetic epidemiology and biological monitoring Over the past 20 years or so a range of molecular techniques health been added to the portfolio that epidemiologists use to link exposure with disease information.

    Measuring a potentially harmfully substance in blood, urine, or teeth allows one to consider jointly all routes of exposure, be it inhalation, uptake via food and water oral or via the skin dermal. Measuring the early response within a critical target organ is conceptually a very attractive way of improving the quality of exposure assessment. However, in practice, the applications of biomarkers of exposure have been much more limited for a number of reasons.

    These include their often short biological half-life which means that only exposure in the recent past can be investi- gated. Often it is not yet well understood what the markers are actually measuring. The role of individual susceptibility to cancer-causing agents and the develop- ment of molecular techniques to identify individual strains of bacteria through by their genome sequence promised a big surge in the proportion of explained disease variation some years back.

    introduction to public health pdf download

    However, even for such an intensely studied disease as breast cancer the currently six identified genes explain only approximately 20 per cent of the aggregation of breast cancer in families. In terms of methods for improving global public health, it is much more likely, that broad public health evidence-based measures such introduction the millennium public goals on child mortal- ity, maternal health, environment sustainability, poverty and gender equality will impact much more on the global burden of disease.

    In parallel to the changing paradigms download theories that have underpinned public health practice and epidemiology, there have also been changes in the nature of the evidence that impacts on public health practice. These aspects will be covered in some more detail in the final chapter of the book Chapter Summary Working through the chapter should have helped you to answer the questions posed at the beginning.

    You can use the following headings to public the most important aspects of the chapter for you: 1 Give a definition of epidemiology and public health. How should the quality of routinely available health information be judged? In the absence of routinely available health information what approaches may be used? What cautions need to be exercised in comparing differences in health information over time or between places?

    What types of health information do we need pdf what is routinely available? A huge variety of information is required to guide public health practice, which can be seen as having three broad elements see Figure 2. Figure 2. These will be highlighted throughout the book, with the last chapter Chapter 11 aiming to provide an overview of how public health moves from understanding public health problems through to implementing and monitoring the impact of interventions to tackle those problems.

    This chapter is concerned with some of the core information that health required to understand and monitor the public health, which is essential, although not enough, for public health practice. Consider the types of information that might download needed to describe the health status and determinants of health inntroduction introduction community by working through Exercise 2.

    You have been asked to describe the health and the determinants of health for residents in your area. List the information you introsuction seek to obtain. In describing the health status of pdf in your area you may have started by wanting to know their number by age introsuction sex, as health of these can have major impli- cations for health.

    You may have mentioned deaths and causes of death and episodes of illness. You may pd have mentioned more positive aspects of health, perhaps trying to define general well-being and quality of life. How much of this information is routinely available? The answer, of helath, depends partly on where you are. In the sections that follow, the major types of routinely available information that are avail- able in most rich countries, such as those of Western Europe and North America, are described.

    Introduction to Public Health

    Using information critically There is a lot of information around which is relevant to health. The information which is available, however, is a very mixed bag, of varying quality and usefulness. Any source of information must be used critically. For example, if you were interested in the amount of lung cancer in the community, then looking at the number of deaths from lung cancer should give a reasonable idea because most people with lung cancer die from it within a fairly short space of time.

    What if you were interested in the amount of diabetes in the community? Deaths from diabetes would give a very poor impression of this. Diabetes is a chronic condition with very long average duration. Although the majority of people with diabetes die from one of its com- plications, which include coronary public disease and stroke, diabetes is frequently not recorded as a cause of death. Ijtroduction can arise at several points.

    For example, if the information is based on download records, how accurate was the original information in the hospital records, and how accurately was that information coded, transcribed and turned into routine statistics? Completeness refers to whether all the information is recorded health each person as well as whether everyone who should be or every event is included. How up to date the information needs to be depends on what you want to introdkction it for.

    Information that is one or two years old on the size and characteristics of a popu- lation is likely to be perfectly acceptable barring major social upheaval over that time to describe such things as the age, sex, ethnic mix, types of housing, and so on; information of this age to monitor levels of food poisoning would be useless — the picture could easily have changed over this time, but just as importantly the time scale would be far too long to allow effective preventive action to be taken.

    Hezlth the issues of validity, accuracy, completeness, timeliness for an infor- mation source with which you are familiar in Exercise 2. Information on population size and characteristics Introduction census is a count, an enumeration, of the population. Vownload one of the areas to which you have contributed.

    Write below what you know about the accuracy, completeness and timeliness of the information. Could this information inntroduction be used to help build up a picture of the health of the local community? Give your reasons, including reservations you may have about the use of the information in this way. Most rich and many low and middle income countries undertake regular cen- suses of their populations.

    The usual aim of census enumeration is to record the identity of every person in every place of pdf, including their age or date of birth, sex, marital status and occupation.

    Introduction to Public Health 5th Edition

    Other personal details may also be recorded such as place of birth, race or ethnicity, educational history, literacy and pdf health status. Details on living conditions, such as the number of rooms in the house and the type of toilet are also introduction collected. In most countries the census is the main source of information on the size, age and sex structure and basic socio-economic characteristics of the population.

    As an example we will describe the census in the United Kingdom. Regular ten yearly censuses have health carried out sincewith one omission which was in in the midst of the Second World War. Details of the census procedures, and its results, can be found through the Office of National Statistics web address at public end of this chapter. During the last census, ininformation was collected about households, as well as about individuals.

    Data were collected on age, downkoad, marital status, ethnicity, occupation and employment, education, car ownership, housing tenure and the presence of long-standing illness. On tp each enumeration district contains about households. An enumerator is responsible for ensuring that a dkwnload is delivered to every household prior to the night of the census and is collected from that household as soon after the census as possible. The head of the household is required by law to provide pubpic on the census form for every person who is a member of the household, present or absent, on the night of the census.

    Now that you know a little about the census in the UK and how it is conducted, think through some of the issues of accuracy, completeness and timeliness by working through Exercise 2. The accuracy of the information is dependent on the people completing the form i. The census aims to count every person living in the United Kingdom on the night of the census.

    It obtains information about those not present at their residence from the head of the household. However, some people will not be counted in a download, others will be counted twice. In terms of health needs, a major concern is those people without a permanent address, for example, those living in temporary accommodation, and those sleeping rough.

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    We know that these people have specific health needs, but the census will only count a small proportion of them. Despite the legal requirement some people, particularly in inner city areas, may refuse to complete the census form. Finally, in terms of timeliness, it is a major drawback of the census that it occurs only once every ten years.

    Estimates of the population between censuses are based on births, deaths and migrations. The first two are accurately health, but internal migration i. Similarly, the social and economic fabric of an area can change markedly in ten years. Information on fertility and mortality Registration of vital events There are pdf possible sources of information on fertility and mortality, such as hospital and maternity records and data collected as part of a census.

    The main source, however, in all rich countries, and many others, is from a system of registra- tion of births and deaths. Such registration involves the creation of a permanent record for a birth or death. These records have a variety of uses within society. They include legal and civic uses, such as for establishing citizenship, rights to welfare services, and inheritance, through to areas that we are interested in here, such as monitoring trends in birth rates and death rates.

    The situation in the UK is described as an example although the system is very similar in all rich countries. It has been a legal requirement since the nineteenth century that all births and deaths in the Introduction are registered. Throughout the country there is a network of Registry Offices where information on all births and deaths occurring in that area are collected.

    Each Registry Office is headed by a local registrar, a person who is appointed by the local government. The birth registration data are made available to the Office of National Statistics which uses them, in conjunction with its demographic data from the census, to produce a series of statistics on fertility, some of which are detailed in Table 2. Table 2. General fertility rate Number of live births to residents of an area in one year per female population aged 15—44 years in that area.

    Total period fertility rate Average number of public per woman based on current fertility rates. Mortality Perinatal mortality rate Number download still births and deaths within the first week of life per total births live and still for a given year.

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    Infant mortality rate Number of deaths in children under 1 year per live births for a given year. Crude death rate Number dpf deaths to residents public an area in one year per population of that area. Age-specific death rate Number of deaths to residents of an area in one age group in one year per population in download age group. Cause-specific death rate Number of deaths to residents of an area from a specific cause in one year per population. Registration of deaths and information on mortality When a death occurs, the registered medical practitioner who attended the deceased during their final illness is required by law to issue a medical certificate on the cause of death.

    The format for the certificate used was laid down healfhand the same basic format is recommended for international use. The certificate has two main sections see Box 2. In section 1 of the certificate the doctor enters the conditions which led directly to death, with the disease or condition that started the sequence of events health on the pdf line.

    Any other significant conditions that may have contributed to death are put in section 2. If the registrar is satisfied in some cases, such as a death in suspicious circumstances, the case may need to go to a coroner for cause of death to be deter- introductionthen all these details are forward to the ONS. At the ONS cause of death is coded.

    Most of the coding is done automatically by computer. The coding follows an internationally agreed system, called the International Classification of Diseases or ICD healtu shortthe latest version of which is the 10th revision ICD— Statistics on cause of death are almost always based on the underlying cause, as this tends to be the most useful for public health purposes.

    Oct 03,  · Introduction to Public Health. Download or Read online Introduction to Public Health full in PDF, ePub and kindle. This book written by Mary-Jane Schneider and published by Jones & Bartlett Learning which was released on 14 October with total pages /5(1). Download Free PDF. An Introduction to Public Health and Epidemiology SECOND EDITION. Abe Gere. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. An Introduction to Public Health and Epidemiology SECOND karenchristine.coted Reading Time: 13 mins. May 18,  · [Download] PDF Introduction to Public Health This is a wonderful textbook for an introductory course in public health, because it does a great job of utilizing past public health events in making a point. I like the ways in which epidemiology and the biomedical section of public health was explained, in a way which does not rely on statistics /

    The World Health Organization defines the underlying cause of death as follows: 1 The disease or injury which initiated the train of events healrh leading to death. The whole process, from death to becoming a mortality statistic, is summarized in Downnload 2. Statistics on death rates and causes of death are one of the main sources used to describe the state of health of a population introductionn community. However, clearly for the purpose of describing the health of a population or com- munity, mortality statistics have some major shortcomings.

    Give some thought to these by working through Exercise 2. There are two major areas for inaccuracies in mortality data. One is in ascribing cause of death. It can often be very difficult to ascribe a single cause of death, never mind trying to break it down into a sequence of events from underlying cause leading to the immediate cause. This especially true in elderly people where the presence of several disease processes at once is introduction possible.

    The other major area for inaccuracies introdhction in the information received by the registrar from the qualified informant. The accuracy of the information they give will introducton on how well they knew the deceased, and may also be affected by their emotional state downlkad the time. One of the advantages of death statistics, at least in most rich countries, com- pared to other forms of health statistics is that they are virtually per cent com- plete.

    In many lower income countries deaths are very incompletely pdf, and in such situations special studies need to be undertaken to find accurate estimates of death rates and cause of death. In terms of timeliness, it depends on their use. Mortal- ity statistics in the UK for example appear within one year or less of being kntroduction lected. This is quite adequate for most uses. However, obviously if you were using mortality statistics to identify epidemics pdf infectious diseases to which you wanted to make a rapid response, such as an outbreak of cholera, a year would be most untimely.

    Finally, what were your views in Exercise 2. You may have publjc that mortality can never adequately indicate health because health is much more than the absence of disease. This is a fair viewpoint. Yet, where death rates are very high, as they are in all ages in Sub-Saharan Africa, this is at least a pretty good indication that health is also very poor. Nonetheless, in both rich and poor public settings there are some major causes of ill health that make little direct contribution to mortality.

    These include mental health problems and diseases of the bones and joints. Attempts have been made, described later in this chapter, to produce a combined measure of mortality and morbidity so that using a single figure the overall health or more correctly, ill health status of two populations might be compared.

    Information on the causes of morbidity and the health care download Routinely available information on morbidity comes mainly from data on the activity of health services. In theory, such information ought to provide a much better indication of the causes of ill health in a health than information on mortality.

    Unfortunately this promise is rarely realized. Downlod types of morbidity data that are available vary greatly between different countries, download to change as health care structures introduction and change in response to changing approaches to collecting, analysing and disseminating the information. The aim here therefore is not to describe any of the pkblic for collecting morbid- ity in detail but to highlight issues in the use and interpretation of such information.

    One issue which is common to any data source based on health care activity is what has been called the health care iceberg. This is illustrated in Figure 2. People admitted to hospital represent only the tip of the iceberg of all people who are ill in the community. It will also of course miss people who have a disease but who do not feel ill, such as can be case in early cancer, heart disease, diabetes and many other diseases.

    As examples of routinely available morbidity data, we will briefly consider three sources available within the UK, but typical of the situation in many other rich coun- tries as well. Infectious disease notification Doctors are required by law to inform a local introdutcion officer download infectious disease control if they suspect that a patient is suffering from one of around 30 infectious diseases.

    These diseases include measles, meningitis, tuberculosis, whooping cough, cholera and food poisoning. The aim of this system is to allow the local medical officer to take appropriate action to prevent further cases of the disease. Thus accuracy of diagnosis is considered less important than speed, pulbic the diagnosis can always be checked once the notification is made.

    Unfortunately, although infectious disease notification is a legal requirement, underreporting is very common. Even haelth dis- eases which haelth always require hospitalization, such as meningococcal meningitis, up to 50 per public of cases may not be reported. Thus notifications tend to be incomplete and many pd be inaccurate. This centre monitors trends nationally, and is responsible for producing cownload data on infectious disease notifications.

    Cancer registration Disease registers, which ideally contain the details of every person with a particular disease living in a geographically defined area, offer many potential rewards by pro- health high quality information for research, planning and patient management. Examples of diseases for vownload registers health in some areas include diabetes, coron- ary heart disease and cancers. Cancer registries exist in many countries. A national cancer registration scheme was set up in the UK inhezlth in each region there nealth a cancer registry covering a population usually of several million people.

    Cancer registration is not a legal requirement and the registry depends upon the download of local doctors to inform them of patients with cancer. The registry also receives copies of death certificates of residents in their area on which cancer was mentioned as a cause of death. Registers require a huge amount of work, first, to ddownload and identify every individual with the public in the area, and, second, to keep the details of those on the register up to date.

    Studies of cancer registries in the UK suggest underreporting can be large, but that for those cases on the register the accuracy of the information is high. Hospital activity data In the UK these data are available from several different sources. Hospital Episode Statistics as they are called in England provide one of the main sources. An episode of treatment refers to a period of care received under one particular hospital consultant. If an individual is transferred to ehalth care of another consultant, this counts as a new episode.

    If an individual was discharged and readmitted ten times in one year, this would be recorded ti ten episodes hsalth would be indistinguishable on the statistics from ten individuals each admitted once. Thus episodes of care, not individuals, are the basic unit being counted. Since it has become possible, in theory at least, to track individuals in the Hospital Episode Introduction by healthh the NHS number which is unique for each individual.

    However, at pdf time of writing this number is often not available in the data that have been entered. From each hospital, a minimum data set for each episode is sent to the Department of Health for pef into national statistics on hospital activity. Data collected in the hospital episode information system include the speciality of the consultant under whose care the episode took place, the clinical diagnosis, the admission and discharge date, the referring general practitioner and the age, sex and usual address healtg the patient.

    Introdution episode statistics are a potentially very useful source of information about illnesses treated in hospital. In addition, factors other than rates of illness health determine differences between hospitals or bealth. Such fac- tors include differences in the number of beds available, admission policies, average distance to the hospital and referral practices.

    Finally, activity in private hospitals is not included, which in some areas is a substantial part of the health care used pdf residents. This brief overview of morbidity data illustrates some of the major problems in their collection and use. Completeness and accuracy are recurring themes, and a striking drawback of hospital activity data is that episodes are counted rather than individuals although this problem could be solved by using unique personal identi- fiers to track individuals.

    You have probably also picked up from discussion of the three examples above that the systems are downloadd separate. This is called record linkage. It requires that each go has a unique and reliable personal identifier, such as an ID number. This intriduction would have to be used on every information system, whether for dis- ease notification, disease registration, hospital admissions, or at death registration.

    All of these information systems would then need to be brought together which in practical terms means on the same computer system in a common format. Pulic such a system it would be possible do such things as count the number of sick individuals in a population based on the information available and to follow t through courses of hospital treatment.

    In some countries individuals are given a unique identi- fying number downkoad birth which is then used on all health records. This greatly facilitates record linkage, and even without routinely bringing all the data together onto one system, ad hoc record linkage studies are much easier. Other routinely available information relevant to health Above we have considered routinely available information on population size and characteristics, fertility, mortality and aspects of morbidity. In addition to these areas there may hexlth many others types of routinely available information that are relevant to health.

    Examples of the types of other routinely available information in the UK are given in Table 2. Approaches to obtaining information in situations where the data are not routinely available In many parts of the world routinely available data of the type described above on population size and characteristics, births and deaths, and episodes of illness and disease, are not available. Or if they are available, they often suffer from serious problems of incompleteness or inaccuracy that render them not very useful.

    Various approaches have been used to provide types of data in such situations. They include inntroduction surveillance, epidemiological surveys, introduction rapid assessment methods. Births — details of all births registered in area, including birth weight and occupation of mother, etc. Deaths — details of all deaths registered in the area, such as age, cause of death, place public death, occupation of deceased.

    Population estimates and projections — estimates of population size between censuses, projected population size in future. Vital statistics Rates of deaths, including perinatal and infant mortality, birth rates and fertility rates. Morbidity Notifiable diseases — infectious disease notifications by age, sex, address, date organism.

    Oct 03,  · Introduction to Public Health. Download or Read online Introduction to Public Health full in PDF, ePub and kindle. This book written by Mary-Jane Schneider and published by Jones & Bartlett Learning which was released on 14 October with total pages /5(1). Introduction to Public Health 5th Edition PDF Free Download. Introduction to Public Health, Fifth Edition offers a thorough, accessible overview of the expanding field of public health for students new to its concepts and actors. Written in engaging, nontechnical language, this best-selling text explains in clear terms the multi-disciplinary Estimated Reading Time: 50 secs. May 18,  · [Download] PDF Introduction to Public Health This is a wonderful textbook for an introductory course in public health, because it does a great job of utilizing past public health events in making a point. I like the ways in which epidemiology and the biomedical section of public health was explained, in a way which does not rely on statistics /

    Cancer registrations — diagnosis, age, sex, occupation, area of residence, details of treatment. Hospital activity — introductiion age, sex, method of admission, diagnosis, operative procedures, etc. Socio-economic data Unemployment benefit — numbers claiming by area. Free school meals — numbers claiming by downloac. Housing benefit — numbers claiming by area.

    Income support — numbers claiming public area. Environmental data Road accidents — casualties and type of accident by area police divisiononly includes accidents to which police are called. Crime statistics introduction numbers and type of reported crime by area. Air pollution — results from different monitoring sites around the city. Drinking water — levels of introvuction and coliform bacteria by water supply zones.

    Noise — number of complaints. Pests — number of complaints for cockroaches, rats, etc. Source: Lord, J. Some of the main characteristics and uses of these approaches are summarized in Table 2. Box 2. This system aims to provide estimates of the burden of disease in Tanzania, including cause-specific mortality, and the major determinants of that disease burden, particularly its relationship to poverty. The information generated by the system is download in national policy-making, planning, and evaluation.

    The system also provides an invaluable infrastructure for undertaking other types of studies, such as on levels of morbidity from particular health problems. Epidemiological intrdouction methods are described in Chapter 5. Further reading for rapid evaluation methods can be found at the end of this chapter. Data from the demo- graphic surveillance system in Tanzania are referred to again in subsequent chapters. Numbers in brackets show the total, all ages, publix rounded to nearest under surveillance in These sites have been under surveillance since More recently a further 3 sites have been added to create a nationally representative surveillance system.

    Networks of village and neighbourhood reporters record deaths on a continuous public. Where they exist, medical records for the introducttion are also obtained. Agreement between two iintroduction necessary to assign the cause of death. Note: For more information, see: www. A good idea in using any information source is to try and think through the process involved from the data being collected to it being presented in its current form.

    Introductino and identify each step in the process and ask yourself what errors lublic arise at each step. Try doing this now when answering the questions in Exercise 2. Epidemiological surveys Representative sample of Assesses the prevalence of larger population selected. Exercise 2. Try and think of some possible explanations for the apparent differences. Here are some dpf. Perhaps the local medical officer recently ran a campaign to encourage all doctors to notify cases of food poisoning.

    A possible explanation is that in the district with the higher rate there is a team with a special interest in diabetes. If someone with diabetes dies of healhh immediate cause only possibly related to diabetes, they tend nevertheless to record it as the underlying cause of death, whereas in the other introduction diabetes would not be given as the underlying cause in this situation.

    Summary Write your own summary of this chapter by answering the following questions: 1 Hdalth the range pxf routinely available information which may be use- ful pkblic describing the health and determinants of health of a community or population. What are the potential sources of error in routine mortality statistics? Now reflect again on what your skills and knowledge currently are, where there are heslth and any actions arising.

    What are incidence itnroduction prevalence and how are they related? Why are standardized rates needed and how are they calculated? First, work through Exercise 3. Exercise 3. Details of the breed of dog causing the bite were collected from people. The main breeds responsible were as follows: Staffordshire bull terrier 15 cases Pdf Russell 13 introductiob Medium-sized mongrel 10 cases Cownload 9 cases Labrador 8 cases Collie inntroduction cases Question: Does this mean that Staffordshire bull terriers are healgh likely to bite people than collies?

    Source: Shewell, P. We hope you agree that it does not follow from the information in the first example that Staffordshire bull terriers are more likely to bite people than collies. Further information is required. Two pieces of information you may have thought ihtroduction are, how many dogs are there in each breed, and how much time do those dogs spend around people? It is possible that collies are more likely to bite than Staffordshire bull terriers.

    This would be compatible with the results above if collies were health less commonly owned or spent less time with people. So to make a valid comparison we need to relate the number of bites for each breed to the number of dogs in that breed, or to the amount of time the dogs spend with download. In other words we need to use rates.

    What is a rate? In epidemiology a rate is a measure of how frequently an event occurs, in a defined population, over a specified period of time. All rates are ratios, which simply means that they consist of one number divided by another number. The top number is called the numerator and the bottom one the denominator. The numerator of a rate is the number of times the event of interest, such as a dog bite, occurs over a given time period. The denominator is usually the average population downlaod such as the popula- tion of dogs over the same time period.

    So for example, if multiplied byit would then be the number of events per population for the specified time period. Try comparing the rate of bites from collies and Staffordshire bull terriers in the town of Barking Exercise 3. In Barking, in20 people were bitten by Staffordshire bull terriers and 15 people were bitten by collies. Barking has a dog registration scheme and, assuming that all dogs are registered, it is known that in the average population of Staffordshire bull terriers in Barking wasand of collies was Two dog owners health having a fierce debate over which breed is more likely to bite people.

    Assuming that each breed of dog spends the same amount of time around people, settle the dispute by calculating biting rates for each breed in You should have found that the biting rates for collies and Staffordshire bull terriers were the same, i. What are incidence and prevalence? Pdf are likely to hear and read more about two types of rate than any others. They are called incidence and prevalence.

    These terms are used to refer to rates that measure the frequency of a disease or health condition in a population. The aim of this section is to explain what each term means, and how they differ.

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    It is supposed to. Many people find incidence and prevalence difficult concepts. In fact they are not, and you have just calculated the prevalence and incidence of the common cold among the download nursing home residents pdf the month of January. Prevalence refers to all prevAlence people in a defined population with the disease or condition at a given point in time or over a given period of time. On the first day in January ten introduction had a cold.

    Over the month of January another 18 residents developed a cold. Assuming that the number of residents did not change over January, answer the following questions: What proportion of the residents had a cold on the first day of January? What proportion of the residents had a cold some time during the month of January? Point prevalence refers to the proportion of people in a population with a disease or condition at one point in time.

    The point prevalence of the common cold among the nursing home residents in Download 3. Period prevalence is the proportion of people in a population known to have or have had a disease or condition at any time during a specified time period. The period prevalence for the month of January of the common cold among the nursing home residents health Exercise 2.

    Incidence differs from prevalence in that it refers only to new iNcidence cases of a disease or condition that develop in a population over a specified period of time. It refers to all people who could become new cases. In Exercise 3. You find out the number of new cases over the past year from the cancer registry. This gives the numer- ator for calculating the incidence. Imagine health start with the number of the total population of your area for the last year.

    When calculating the incidence of cancer of the uterus you would clearly want to exclude men from the denominator. You would also want to exclude women who introduction had a hysterectomy, because without a uterus they can no longer be at risk. Public would also want to exclude women who had already had cancer of the uterus diagnosed before the specified time period, and who therefore could not become a new case.

    In practice you might find it difficult to define the size of the population at risk accur- public. For example, even if the total number of women is known with reasonable accuracy, information on the number of women with hysterectomies might be harder to find. By working through Exercise 3. What is the relationship between incidence and prevalence? The amount of water in the pot represents how much pdf a particular disease there is in the population at any one time the point prevalence.

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